Deep distributed decision trees and tree ensembles have grown in importance due to the need to model increasingly large datasets. However, PLANET, the standard distributed tree learning algorithm implemented in systems such as XGBOOST and Spark MLLIB, scales poorly as data dimensionality and tree depths grow. We present YGGDRASIL, a new distributed tree learning method that outperforms existing methods by up to 24×. Unlike PLANET, YGGDRASIL is based on vertical partitioning of the data (i.e., partitioning by feature), along with a set of optimized data structures to reduce the CPU and communication costs of training. YGGDRASIL (1) trains directly on compressed data for compressible features and labels; (2) introduces efficient data structures for training on uncompressed data; and (3) minimizes communication between nodes by using sparse bitvectors. Moreover, while PLANET approximates split points through feature binning, YGGDRASIL does not require binning, and we analytically characterize the impact of this approximation. We evaluate YGGDRASIL against the MNIST 8M dataset and a high-dimensional dataset at Yahoo; for both, YGGDRASIL is faster by up to an order of magnitude.